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Journalismis the reporting, writing, editing, photographing, orbroadcastingof news. While under pressure to be first with their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proofread their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organizations standards of accuracy, quality, and style.
The printing press and print journalism
Birth of broadcasting in the twentieth century
Recognition of excellence in journalism
Rights of journalists versus those of private citizens and organizations
Right to protect confidentiality of sources
Right of access to government information
Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable. As powerful influences ofpublic opinion, news organizations and journalists have a responsibility to act in the interest of the betterment of human society.
Journalism has as its main activity the reporting of eventsstating who, what, when, where, why and howand explaining the significance and effect of events or trends. Sincenewspapersbegan as journals or records of current events, the profession involved in writing the content of newspapers came to be called journalism.
News-oriented journalism has been described as the first rough draft of history (often attributed to Philip Graham), because journalists often record important events, producing news articles on short deadlines.1Journalism exists in a number ofmass media:newspapers,television,radio, magazines and, most recently, theWorld Wide Webthrough theInternet.
The subject matter of journalism can be anything and everything, and journalists report and write on a wide variety of subjects: politics on the international, national, state/provincial and local levels; economics andbusinesson the same four levels;healthandmedicine;education;sports; entertainment and recreation; lifestyles; clothing; food; and relationships. Journalists can report for general interest news outlets likenewspapers, news magazines, andbroadcastsources; general circulation specialty publications like trade and hobby magazines, or for news publications and outlets with a select group of subscribers.
Journalists are usually expected and required to go out to the scene of a story to gather information for their reports, and often may compose their reports in the field. They also use thetelephone, thecomputer, and the internet to gather information. However, more often those reports are written and almost always edited in the newsroom, where journalists and editors work together to prepare news content.
Journalists, especially if they cover a specific subject or area (a beat) are expected to cultivate sourcespeople in the subject or area that they can communicate witheither to explain the details of a story, or to provide leads to other stories yet to be reported. They are also expected to develop their investigative skills to better research and report stories.
The earliest methods of transmitting news began with word of mouth, which limited its content to what people saw and relayed to others; accuracy in news depended on the scope of the event being described and its relevance to the listener. The time it took for news to be disseminated by this method involved days, weeks, months or more. Ancientmonarchialgovernments developed ways of relaying written reports. TheRoman EmpirefromJulius Caesaronward recorded and distributed a daily record of political news and acts to Roman colonies. After the empire collapsed, news dissemination depended on travelers tales, songs, ballads, letters, and governmental dispatches.
The invention of the movable typeprinting press, attributed toJohannes Gutenbergin 1456, led to the wide dissemination of the Bible and other printed books. The first printed periodical wasMercurius Gallobelgicus, first appearing in Cologne,Germany, in 1594 and written in Latin. Nevertheless, it was distributed widely and found its way to readers inEngland.2
The firstnewspapersappeared in Europe in the seventeenth century. The first regularly published newspaper inEnglish(as opposed to the earlier news books, published in eight- to 24-page quarto formats) was theOxford Gazette(later theLondon Gazette, and published continuously ever since), which first appeared in 1665. It began publication while the British royal court was in Oxford to avoid theplagueinLondon, and was published twice a week. When the court moved back to London, the publication moved with it.
The first daily newspaper, theDaily Courant, appeared in 1702 and continued publication for more than 30 years. Its first editor was also the first woman in journalism, although she was replaced after only a couple of weeks. By this time, the British had adopted the Press Restriction Act, which required that the printers name and place of publication be included on each printed document.
The first printer in Britains American colonies was Stephen Day in Cambridge,Massachusetts, who began in 1638. The British regulation of printing extended to the Colonies. The first newspaper in the colonies in 1690, Benjamin HarrissPublick Occurrences both Foreighn and Domestick, was suppressed after only one issue under a 1662 Massachusetts law that forbade printing without a license. The publication of a story suggesting that the king ofFranceshared a bed with his sons wife may also have contributed to the suppression.
The first real colonial newspaper was theNew England Courant, published as a sideline by printer James Franklin, brother ofBenjamin Franklin. Like many other colonial newspapers, it was aligned with party interests and did not publish balanced content. Ben Franklin was first published in his brothers newspaper, under the pseudonym Silence Dogood, in 1722. Franklins pseudonymous publishing represented a common practice of newspapers of that time of protecting writers from retribution from those they criticized, often to the point of what would be consideredlibeltoday.
As the nineteenth century progressed in America, newspapers began functioning more as privatebusinesseswith real editors rather than as partisan organs, though standards for truth and responsibility were still low. Other than local news, much of the reporting was simply copied from other newspapers. In addition to news stories, there might bepoetry, or fiction, or humor. As American cities likeNew York,Philadelphia,Boston, andWashington, D.C.grew with theIndustrial Revolution, so did newspapers. Larger printing presses, thetelegraphand other technological innovations allowed newspapers to print thousands of copies cheaply, boost circulation, and increase revenue.
The first newspaper to fit the modern definition as a newspaper was theNew York Herald, founded in 1835 and published by James Gordon Bennett. It was the first newspaper to have city staff covering regular beats and spot news, along with regular business and Wall Street coverage. In 1838 Bennett also organized the first foreign correspondent staff of six men in Europe and assigned domestic correspondents to key cities, including the first reporter to regularly cover Congress.
The New York Timeswas founded in 1851 by George Jones and Henry Raymond. It established the principle of balanced reporting with high-quality writing. At the time, however, it did not achieve the circulation and success it came to enjoy.
TheCivil Warhad a profound effect on American journalism. Large newspapers hired war correspondents to cover the battlefields, with more freedom than correspondents today enjoy. These reporters used the new telegraph and expanding railways to move news reports faster to their newspapers. The cost of sending telegraph messages helped create a new concise or tight style of writing which became a standard for journalism through the next century.
The ever-growing demand for urban newspapers to provide more news led to the organization of the first of the wire services, a cooperative between six largeNew York City-based newspapers led by David Hale, the publisher of theJournal of Commerce, and James Gordon Bennett, to provide coverage of Europe for all of the papers together. What became theAssociated Pressreceived the first cable transmission ever of European news through the trans-Atlantic cable in 1858.
The New York dailies continued to redefine journalism. James BennettsHerald, for example, did not just write about the disappearance ofDavid LivingstoneinAfrica; they sentHenry Stanleyto find him, which he did, inUganda. The success of Stanleys stories prompted Bennett to hire more of what would turn out to be investigative journalists. He was also the first American publisher to bring an American newspaper to Europe by founding theParis Herald, the precursor of todaysInternational Herald Tribune.
Charles Anderson Dana of theNew York Sundeveloped the idea of the human interest story and a better definition of news value, including uniqueness of a story.
Guglielmo Marconiand colleagues in 1901 used a wirelessradiotransmitter to send a signal from theUnited Statesto Europe. By 1907, his invention was in wide use for transatlantic communication. The first commercial radio broadcast was made in November 1920 in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania. Marconis invention was quickly adopted by news businesses for dissemination of current events to the public in numbers previously unthinkable. The technology behindtelevisionemerged in the 1920s, and the first commercial TV broadcast made in July 1941 inNew York. Like radio, television was quickly adopted as a medium for journalism, with today many networks around the world devoted entirely to television journalism includingCNN,BBC, andal Jazeera.3
Print journalism can be split into several categories:newspapers, news magazines, general interest magazines, trade magazines, hobby magazines, newsletters, private publications, online news pages, and others. Each genre can have its own requirements for researching and writing reports.
Newspaper journalists in theUnited Stateshave traditionally written reports using the inverted pyramid style, although this style is used more for straight or hard news reports rather than features. Written hard news reports are expected to be sparing in their use of words, and to list the most important information first. This ensures that, if the story must be cut because there is not enough space for the complete text, the least important facts can be cut automatically from the bottom.4Editors usually ensure that reports are written with as few words as possible. Feature stories are usually written in a looser style that usually depends on the subject matter of the report, and in general are granted more space.
News magazine and general interest magazine articles are usually written in a different style, with less emphasis on the inverted pyramid. Trade publications tend to be more news-oriented, while hobby publications are more feature-oriented.
Radiojournalists must gather facts and present them fairly and accurately, but also must find and record relevant and interesting audio to add to their reports, both interviews with people involved in the story and background sounds that help characterize the story. Radio reporters may write an introduction to the story which is read by a radio news anchor, and then answer questions live from the anchor.
Televisionjournalists rely on visual information to illustrate and characterize their reporting, including on-camera interviews with people involved in the story, shots of the scene where the story took place, and graphics usually produced at the station to help frame the story. Like radio reporters, television reporters also may write the introductory script that a television news anchor reads to set up their story. Both radio and television journalists usually do not have as much space, i.e., time, to present information in their reports as print journalists.
The Drudge Report, a U.S. based news aggregation website founded by Matt Drudge, has often scooped major print and broadcast media on breaking news
The fast and vast growth of theInternetandWorld Wide Webhas spawned the newest medium for journalism, online journalism. The speed at which news can be disseminated on the Web and the profound penetration to anyone with a computer and Internet connection have greatly increased the quantity and variety of news reports available to the public.
The bulk of online journalism has been the extension of existing print andbroadcastmedia into the Web via online versions of their primary products. New reports that were set to be released at expected times now can be published as soon as they are written and edited, increasing the deadline pressure and fear of being scoopedbeaten in the race to be first to bring news to the public.
Most news websites are free to their usersthe notable exception beingThe Wall Street Journalsite, for which, at least under present ownership, a subscription is required to view its contents. Some outlets, as didThe New York Timessite until October 2007, offer current news for free but archived reports and access to opinion columnists and other non-news sections for a fee. Attempts to start unique web publications, such asSlateandSalon, have met with limited success, in part because they do or did charge subscription fees.
The growth of blogs (shortened from web-logs) or online journals as a source of newsand especially opinion on the news has forever changed journalism. Blogs now can create news as well as report it, and blur the dividing line between news and opinion. Other sites contain user-generated content, likeand. All, or the bulk, of the content comes from citizens rather than professional reporterson some sites even passing through no editorial process; the citizen posts news directly. This technological capability radically undermines the traditional gatekeeper role of news organizations.
Newspapersand periodicals often contain features written by journalists, many of whom specialize in this form of in-depth journalism. Feature articles typically are longer than straight news articles, and are combined with photographs, drawings, or other graphics. They may also be highlighted by typographic effects or colors.
Writing features can be more demanding than writing straight news stories. While a journalist must apply the same amount of effort to accurately gather and report the facts of the story, the reporter must also find a creative and interesting way to write the article, especially the lead, or the first one or two paragraphs of the story. The lead must capture the readers attention yet accurately embody the ideas of the article.
In the latter half of the twentieth century, the line between straight news reporting and feature writing blurred as more and more journalists and publications experimented with different approaches to writing an article. Tom Wolfe andHunter S. Thompson, among others, used many different approaches to writing news articles. Urban and alternative weekly newspapers went even further blurring the distinction, and many magazines include more features than straight news.
Sometelevisionnews shows experimented with alternative formats. Many that claimed to be news shows were not considered as such by many critics, because their content and methods did not adhere to accepted journalistic standards.National Public Radio, on the other hand, is considered a good example of a balanced mixture of straight news reporting, features, and combinations of the two, usually meeting standards of high quality.
Businessjournalism tracks, records, analyzes and interprets the economic changes taking place in a society, from personal finance, to business at the local market, to performance of well-known and lesser-known companies. This form of journalism covers news and feature articles about people, places and issues related to the field of business. Almost all general newspapers and magazines, radio and television news channels carry a business segment. Detailed and in-depth business journalism is found in dedicated business or financial publications, radio and television channels.
Business coverage gained prominence in the 1990s, with wider investment in the stock market.The Wall Street Journalpublished in New York and theFinancial Timespublished in London are two global business newspapers that appear six days a week. Today, business reporting is a burgeoning field within journalism, and one of the most profitable.
Sportsjournalism covers many aspects ofathleticcompetition, and is an integral part of most journalism products, includingnewspapers, magazines, andradioandtelevisionnews broadcasts. While some critics do not consider sports journalism to be true journalism, the prominence of sports in Western culture has justified the attention of journalists to not just the competitive events of sports, but also to athletes and the business of sports.
Sports journalism in theUnited Stateshas traditionally been written in a looser, more creative, and more opinionated tone than traditional journalistic writing; however, the emphases on accuracy and underlying fairness is still a part of sports journalism. An emphasis on the accurate description of statistical performances of athletes is also an important part of sports journalism.
Science journalism is a relatively new branch of journalism, in which journalists reporting conveys information on science topics to the public. Science journalists must understand and interpret very detailed, technical, and oftentimes jargon-laden information and render it into interesting reports that are comprehensible to consumers of news media.
Scientific journalists also must choose which developments in science merit news coverage, as well as cover disputes within the scientific community with a balance of fairness to both sides but also with a devotion to the facts.
Investigative journalism involves journalists investigating and exposingunethical,immoraland illegal behavior by individuals, businesses and government agencies. It can be complicated, time-consuming, and expensiverequiring teams of journalists, months of research, interviews (sometimes repeated interviews) with numerous people, long-distance travel, computers to analyze public-record databases, or use of the companys legal staff to secure documents under freedom of information laws.
Because of its inherently confrontational nature, this kind of reporting is often the first to suffer from budget cutbacks or interference from outside the news department. Investigative reporting done poorly can also expose journalists and media organizations to negative reaction from subjects of investigations and the public. However, done well, it can bring the attention of the public and government problems and conditions that need to be addressed.
The power of investigative journalism to affect events was seen in the reporting on theWatergatebreak-in andWhite Housecover-up byThe Washington Postand other newspapers that led to the eventual resignation of PresidentRichard M. Nixonin August 1974.
A less reputable area of journalism that grew in stature in the twentieth century is celebrity or people journalism. This area focuses on the personal lives of people, primarily celebrities, including movie and stage actors, musical artists, models, and photographers, other notable people in the entertainment industry, as well as people who seek attention, such as politicians, and people thrust into the attention of the public due to their involvement in newsworthy events.
Once the province of newspaper gossip columnists and gossip magazines, celebrity journalism has become the focus of national tabloid newspapers like theNational Enquirer, magazines likePeople, syndicated television shows likeEntertainment TonightandInside Edition, cable networks likeA&E Network and The Biography Channel, and numerous other television productions and thousands of websites. Most other news media provide some coverage of celebrities and people.
Celebrity journalism differs from feature writing in that it focuses on people who are either already famous or are especially attractive, and in that it often covers celebrities obsessively, to the point of these journalists behaving unethically in order to provide coverage.Paparazzi, photographers who follow celebrities incessantly to obtain potentially embarrassing photographs, have come to characterize celebrity journalism.
Generally, publishers and consumers of journalism draw a distinction between reportingjust the factsand opinion writing, often by restricting opinion columns to the editorial page and its facing or op-ed (opposite the editorials) page(s). Unsigned editorials are traditionally the official opinions of the papers editorial board, while op-ed pages may be a mixture of syndicated columns and other contributions, frequently with some attempt to balance the voices across some political or social spectrum.
However, the distinction between reporting and opinion can break down. Complex stories often require summarizing and interpretation of facts, especially if there is limited time or space for a story. Stories involving great amounts of interpretation are often labeled news analysis, but still run in a papers news columns. The limited time for each story in a broadcast report rarely allows for such distinctions.
The very act of selecting what counts as news and deciding how and where to present it itself can express strong views and opinions. Newspaper news pages oftentimes carry news stories presented in a way that support a particular view or perspective that is not supported within the papers editorial and opinion pages. Some editors believe it is more important to control the news that goes into a paper than to control the opinion pages because it is the news pages that really shape public opinion.
With the advent of cable television and dedicated news channels likeCNN, Fox News, CNBC, and MSNBC in the U.S., as well as news and blog Web sites, has come the creation of the 24-hour news cycle. For those outlets, news has to keep flowing around the clock and not just appear once a day at deadline. This in turn has created pressure on the traditional standards of sourcing and checking. The standard used to be two named sources for a story. Now, more and more, news organizations use single sources and anonymous sources to get stories out quickly and not be beaten by a blogger. Thus, traditional ethical standards are under pressure as a result of the new commercial environment created by new technology.
Gonzo journalism, a style of reporting that mixes fiction and factual journalism, further obfuscates for readers and audiences the facts that surround a story. It favors style over accuracy and often uses personal experiences and emotions to provide context for the topic or event being covered. It disregards the polished edited product favored by newspaper media. Use of quotes, sarcasm, humor, exaggeration, and even profanity is common. Its highly subjective style often includes the reporter as part of the story, via a first person narrative, and events may be exaggerated in order to emphasize the underlying message.5
Journalists are expected to follow a stringent code of journalistic conduct67that requires them to, among other things:
Use original sources of information, including interviews with people directly involved in a story, original documents and other direct sources of information, whenever possible, and cite the sources of this information in reports;
Fully attribute information gathered from other published sources, should original sources not be available (to not do so is consideredplagiarism; some newspapers also note when an article uses information from previous reports);
Use multiple original sources of information, especially if the subject of the report is controversial;
Find and report every side of a story possible;
Report without bias, illustrating many aspects of a conflict rather than siding with one;
Approach researching and reporting a story with a balance between objectivity and skepticism.
Use careful judgment when organizing and reporting information.
Be careful about granting confidentiality to sources (news organizations usually have specific rules that journalists must follow concerning grants of confidentiality);
Decline gifts or favors from any subject of a report, and avoid even the appearance of being influenced;
Abstain from reporting or otherwise participating in the research and writing about a subject in which the journalist has a personal stake or bias that cannot be set aside.
Such a code of conduct is difficult to uphold consistently. Journalists who believe they are being fair or objective may give biased accountsby reporting selectively, trusting too much to anecdote, or giving a partial explanation of actions. Even in routine reporting, bias can creep into a story through a reporters choice of facts to summarize, or through failure to check enough sources, hear and report dissenting voices, or seek fresh perspectives.
As much as reporters try to set aside theirprejudices, they may simply be unaware of them. Young reporters may be blind to issues affecting the elderly. A 20-year veteran of the police beat may be deaf to rumors of departmental corruption. Publications marketed to affluent suburbanites may ignore urban problems. Naive or unwary reporters and editors alike may fall prey topublic relations,propaganda, or disinformation.
News organizations provide editors, producers, and news directors whose job is to check reporters work at various stages to check compliance with the standards.
There are several professional organizations, universities and foundations that recognize excellence in journalism. ThePulitzer Prize, administered byColumbia UniversityinNew York City, is awarded to newspapers, magazines, and broadcast media for excellence in various kinds of journalism. The Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism gives the Alfred I. DuPont-Columbia University Awards for excellence in radio and television journalism, and the Scripps Howard Foundation gives the National Journalism Awards in 17 categories. The Society of Professional Journalists gives the Sigma Delta Chi Award for journalism excellence. In the television industry, the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences gives awards for excellence in television journalism. In the U.S., there are regional versions of some of these awards as well.
Aggressive journalism is a pejorative term. There are two main types: ambush and gotcha journalism.
Ambush journalism refers to aggressive tactics practiced by journalists to suddenly confront with questions people who otherwise do not wish to speak to a journalist. The practice has particularly been applied by television journalists on news and interview shows, and by American local television reporters conducting investigations.
The practice has been sharply criticized by journalists and others as being highly unethical and sensational, while others defend it as the only way to attempt to provide those subject to it an opportunity to comment for a report. Ambush journalism has not been ruled illegal in the United States, although doing it on private property could open a journalist to being charged withtrespassing.
Gotcha journalism refers to the deliberate manipulation of facts in a report in order to portray a person or organization in a particular light. In broadcast journalism the story, images, and interviews are tailored to create an unbalanced impression of the subject matter. It is considered highly unethical to engage in this type of journalism.
Aggressive journalism is most often practiced bypaparazzior journalists following celebrities, but also has been employed by investigative journalists. For some, the boundary between investigative and aggressive journalism has increasingly become blurred.
Fake newsis a type ofyellow journalismorpropagandathat consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes. This type of news, found in traditional news, social media, or fake news websites, has no basis in fact, but is presented as being factually accurate. Written and published usually with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically, fake news is a type ofyellow journalismorpropagandathat consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes. Fake news often uses sensationalist, dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase readership, violating journalisms ethical and professional standards. The proliferation of fake news in the twenty-first century threatens the integrity of journalism and changes its role in society.
Journalists around the world often write about the governments in their nations, and those governments have widely varying policies and practices, which control what journalists can research and write, and what press organizations can publish. Many Western governments guaranteefreedom of the press, and do relatively little to restrict press rights and freedoms, while other nat